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Annals of Geriatric Medicine and Research  
A Comparison of Memory Beliefs, Cognitive Activity, and Depression Among Healthy Older Adults, Amnestic MCI, and Patient with AD
JongSik Park1, Jooyeon Jamie Im2, In-Uk Song1 , Yeonwook Kang3,4
1Department of Neurology, Incheon St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Incheon, Korea
2Department of Radiology, Incheon St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Incheon, Korea
3Depratment of Psychology, Hallym University, Chuncheon, Korea
4Department of Neurology, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Anyang, Korea
Correspondence to: In-Uk Song, MD, PhD
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0181-0844 Department of Neurology, Incheon St. Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 56 Dongsu-ro, Bupyeong-gu, Incheon 21431, Korea
E-mail: siuy@catholic.ac.kr
Yeonwook Kang, PhD
Department of Psychology, Hallym University, 1 Hallimdaehak-gil, Chuncheon 24252, Korea
E-mail: ykang@hallym.ac.kr
Received: December 29, 2018; Revised: February 18, 2019; Accepted: February 25, 2019; Published online: March 20, 2019.
© The Korean Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved.

2019 by The Korean Geriatrics Society This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Background: Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is highly likely to progress to dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT). One of the most frequently reported symptoms in aMCI and DAT patients is memory impairment. This study compared the levels of beliefs about memory efficacy and control, cognitive activity, and depression among healthy older adults (OA), patients with aMCI, and patients with DAT. Methods: This study included 21 OA (11 males, 10 females), 16 aMCI patients (6 males, 10 females), and 18 DAT patients (10 males, 8 females). The memory efficacy questionnaire, memory control questionnaire, cognitive activity questionnaire, depression questionnaire, and Seoul Verbal Learning Test were administered to all subjects. Results: DAT patients showed significantly lower scores on the recognition test than did the OA and aMCI patients, and no difference in these scores was observed between the OA and aMCI patients. Regarding the memory efficacy, memory control, and cognitive activity questionnaires, DAT and aMCI patients showed significantly lower scores than did OA. However, there were no differences in these scores between aMCI and DAT patients. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that aMCI patients experienced impairment in memory beliefs and memory control in the same way as DAT patients did. These results suggest that the early application of cognitive rehabilitation therapy for patients with aMCI may be effective in preventing or alleviating memory deterioration.
Keywords: Mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer disease, Memory, Depression, Cognitio

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