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Ann Rehabil Med  <  Volume 22(3); 2018 <  Articles

Ann Geriatr Med Res 2018; 22(3): 130-136  https://doi.org/10.4235/agmr.2018.22.3.130
Comparison of Heart Proportions Compressed by Chest Compressions Between Geriatric and Nongeriatric Patients Using Mathematical Methods and Chest Computed Tomography: A Retrospective Study
Kyung Hun Yoo1, Jaehoon Oh1,2, Heekyung Lee1, Juncheol Lee1,3, Hyunggoo Kang1,2, Tae Ho Lim1,2, Soon Young Song4, Solji Kim1
1Department of Emergency Medicine, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea
2Convergence Technology Centre for Disaster Preparedness, Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea
3Department of Emergency Medicine, Armed Forces Capital Hospital, Seongnam, Korea
4Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea
Correspondence to: Jaehoon Oh
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8055-1467
Department of Emergency Medicine, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 04763, Korea
Tel: +82-2-2290-9829
Fax: +82-2-2290-9280
E-mail: ojjai@hanmail.net
Received: July 25, 2018; Revised: September 6, 2018; Accepted: September 7, 2018; Published online: September 30, 2018.
© The Korea Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Background: Current guidelines recommended that chest compression depths during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) should be at least one-fifth of the external chest anteriorposterior (AP) diameter. The chest AP diameter increases because of dorsal kyphosis, senile emphysema, and poor lung compliance associated with aging. This study aimed to compare the proportion of the heart compressed by chest compression (based on the ejection fraction [EF]) in geriatric and nongeriatric patients.
Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of the chest computed tomography findings obtained between January 2010 and August 2016 and measured the chest anatomical parameters such as the perpendicular external and internal chest AP diameters with the heart AP diameter. Based on values of these parameters, EFs with 50- and 60-mm depths were obtained. In addition, we investigated and compared the proportion of 50- and 60-mm depths and heart AP to external chest AP diameter between the 2 groups.
Results: We randomly selected and analyzed 100 of 1,921 geriatric and 100 of 22,090 nongeriatric populations from a database. The means±standard deviations of EFs with 50- and 60-mm depths for geriatric and nongeriatric people were 37.1%±12.1% vs. 43.2%±13.8% and 47.5%±12.8% vs. 54.6%±14.8%, respectively (all p<0.001). The proportion of 50- and 60-mm depths and heart AP to external chest AP diameter were significantly different between the 2 groups (all p<0.05).
Conclusion: Chest compression depths based on current guidelines are not sufficient for geriatric patients during CPR; hence, deeper chest compressions would be considered.
Keywords: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, Basic life support, Chest compression, Geriatrics, Elderly


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