Ann Geriatr Med Res 2017; 21(4): 182-187  http://dx.doi.org/10.4235/agmr.2017.21.4.182
Prevalence of Osteopenia According to Physical Fitness in Men: A Cross-Sectional Study
Yong Hwan Kim1, Dong Hyun Yoon1, Hong Kyu Kim2, Wook Song1,3
1Health and Exercise Science Laboratory, Institute of Sports Science, Seoul National University, Seoul, 2Health Promotion Center, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, 3Institute on Aging, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea
Correspondence to: Wook Song, PhD
Health and Exercise Science Laboratory, Institute of Sports Science, Seoul National University, 1, Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826, Korea
Tel: +82-2-880-7791
Fax:+82-2-872-2867
E-mail: songw3@snu.ac.kr
Received: October 7, 2017; Revised: November 30, 2017; Accepted: December 4, 2017; Published online: December 31, 2017.
© The Korea Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Background: Bone mineral density (BMD) has been associated with fitness, nutrition, lifestyle, and genetic factors such as sex and race. The aim of this study was to determine whether athletic performance in middle-to-old-aged men affected the development of osteopenia.
Methods: This cross-sectional study pooled data collected from 3,560 men in their 40-70’s. BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the lumbar spine 1-4 and the femoral neck. The fitness tests included strength (grip strength), flexibility (trunk forward flexion), and cardiopulmonary fitness (maximum oxygen consumption, VO2max).
Results: The participants in the normal and osteopenia groups were aged 49.9±5.0 (mean±standard deviation) and 50.4±5.1 years, respectively. Those in the highest quartile (Q4) of VO2max had a significantly increased risk of having osteopenia (adjusted odds ratio 1.687; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.193-2.387; p=0.003). Participants in the highest quartile (Q4) of grip strength had a significantly higher adjusted odds ratio (1.445) of having osteopenia (95% CI, 1.099-1.857; p=0.009). Finally, flexibility was 1.454 times higher for the lowest group (Q4) than for the highest group (Q1) (95% CI, 1.194-1.887; p=0.003).
Conclusion: Higher levels of cardiopulmonary fitness and flexibility in middle-aged men may decrease the prevalence of osteopenia and prevent loss of BMD.
Keywords: Fitness, Bone mineral density, Osteopenia, Odds ratio


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