Ann Geriatr Med Res 2017; 21(3): 123-130  http://dx.doi.org/10.4235/agmr.2017.21.3.123
Risk Factors of Geriatric Syndromes in Korean Population
Sunyoung Kim1, Jong-heon Park2, Hongyup Ahn3, Sohee Lee3, Hyung Joon Yoo4, Jinho Yoo5, Chang Won Won1,5, Geriatric Syndromes Study Group of Korea Geriatrics Society
1Department of Medicine, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, 2Big Data Steering Department, National Health Insurance Service, Wonju, 3Department of Statistics, Dongguk University, Seoul, 4Division of Endocrinology & Geriatrics, Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul, 5Department of Family Medicine, Kyung Hee University Medical Center, Seoul, Korea
Correspondence to: Chang Won Won, MD, PhD
Department of Family Medicine, Kyung Hee University Medical Center, 23 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, Korea
Tel: +82-2-958-8697 Fax:+82-2-958-8699 E-mail: chunwon62@naver.com
Received: June 19, 2017; Revised: August 1, 2017; Accepted: August 12, 2017; Published online: September 30, 2017.
© The Korea Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved.

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Abstract
Background: This study was conducted to identify the risk factors of geriatric syndromes including fall-related fractures, delirium, incontinence, and pressure ulcers using the Korean nationwide claims data. Methods: The claims data of the Korean National Health Insurance Service between 2006 and 2015 were used. We included older people, 65 years of age and older, who underwent a national health check-up in 2007 or 2008. Geriatric syndromes were limited to 4 types (fall-related fractures, delirium, incontinence, and pressure ulcers), which can be identified via diagnostic codes. Results: The risks of fall-related fractures, delirium, incontinence, and pressure ulcers all increased with increasing age, and the risks of delirium and incontinence increased more in women than in men. Exercise decreased the risks of all 4 types of geriatric syndrome, and increase in body mass index decreased the risks of fall-related fractures, delirium, and pressure ulcers while increasing the risk of incontinence. The adjusted hazard ratios of smoking and alcohol intake three times or more a week in relation to fall-related fractures, delirium, incontinence, and pressure ulcers were 1.46, 1.16, 0.99, and 1.33, respectively, and 1.042, 1.112, 0.926, and 0.978, respectively. Conclusion: This study showed that increasing age, major surgery within 6 months, and polypharmacy increase the risk of 4 types of geriatric syndrome in Korea. Comorbidity (especially dementia) was identified as a very important risk factor. Exercise had protective effects against the four types of geriatric syndrome studied. However, contradictory results were found for smoking and alcohol intake, which require further study.
Keywords: Fall, Delirium, Incontinence, Pressure Ulcer, National Health Insurance


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